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Header image with the text, 'Mobile app or mobile site?', on a multicolored background.

Mobile app or mobile site?

In my most recent post, I described some challenges that amusement parks and their suppliers would face in hiring a designer, developer, or company to build them an app. Namely, these:

  1. Smartphone users don’t all use the same kind of phone. Responsive design helps designers today be better at designing for different screen sizes, but the phones can use several different major operating systems.
  2. Developing for each operating system – iOS (Apple), Android, Windows Phone, etc. – requires developers to have different technical skills.  It is very hard for a developer to cultivate deep specializations in coding for more than one operating system.  One developer with a deep specialization in Apple devices and one with a deep specalization in Android will be more knowledgeable and more useful to you, in most cases, than one generalist developer who knows a little about both, but…
  3. If you hire both the iOS developer and the Android developer, it will cost you more money.
  4. If you hire the generalist who tries to do both, the app’s quality will likely suffer, and/or the developer will not be able to work as efficiently.
  5. If you have an app for iOS but not Android, or vice versa, users of the other operating systems won’t have an app that they can use.
  6. Even if you do spend the money on a larger development team or an app that will work on more devices, users aren’t guaranteed to use the app.

In other words, I understand that you can spend a lot of money to hire a big development team, have them deliver – on-time – an app that works great on almost any device, and still have wasted your money because the app is collecting dust in the App Store. I’ll be describing some of the reasons why apps don’t get used and some ways how each one can be avoided.

The first hurdle: Download

What if you had an app that worked for all smartphone users?

In order to get your prospective customers to use the app, you must first convince them to download it. Sites do this in a variety of ways:

Notifying existing customers

They may call or email existing customers about a new app in their device’s app store. If it’s their device, this strategy can work for customers that you already know about. But still, they need to be persuaded that they do in fact need the app before they just disregard the call or email. And people in your target market who could give you new business but who aren’t already your customers still won’t know about the app this way.

Creating a partial mobile site

They may present a mobile site that has some of the functionality of the desktop site and the app, but not all of it. The 80/20 rule works well in building out features in this strategy, assuming that time and budget constraints don’t allow building out the whole site. But it still leaves users wondering why the mobile site does not have everything.

Displaying an app pop-up

They may pop up a mobile-friendly message over a mobile or desktop site, telling users to download an app. Users don’t click or tap on anything that they think is an ad, and they will find repeated prompts annoying. Even 10 years ago, leading usability experts said that 95% of users react to pop-ups “very negatively or negatively”, which makes it users’ most hated online advertising technique. This still holds true today.

Displaying the desktop site on mobile devices

You may give users a desktop site which tells them about an app. But then users have to deal with a page layout with too much information on it for their screens. They probably need to pinch and zoom to find the button for downloading your app from the app store.

But do these work?

Recent Deloitte and Comscore studies have said that one-third of smartphone users in the UK and the US, respectively, no longer download any new apps in a typical month.  And 9 out of 10 app users don’t spend any money in apps.  Fewer than half of all smartphone buyers in 2013 were buying their first smartphone, and the “wow” factor of downloading new apps for a new device wears off in as little as four months.  Paid apps have an even harder time with this.

The second hurdle: First-time use

What if you did get them to download the app?

Most apps aren’t used at all

Your site still needs to persuade them to actually use it. If your app is downloaded (not even opened) at least once from the App Store, you will have done better than 60% of all other apps. 95% of all apps are used for less than a month and never opened again.

Don’t make them commit too soon

The design of the app itself must keep both existing customers and possible customers in your funnel. If your app begins with a screen that forces users to register for an account they don’t already have, you have already presented another hurdle in getting users to use it.

The problem with passwords on mobile

Passwords, in particular, are a problem with registration. Since smartphone users have to type on a smaller keyboard, they make a typo on every fifth character, on average. Suppose that a new user creates a password with 8 characters, a standard that most IT organizations consider secure enough. The chance that they get just one character right in confirming a password is therefore 4 in 5.

The chance that they get an entire 8-character password right is 4 in 5 to the eighth power, equal to 65536 in 390625: only about 1 in 6. And that’s only if they can remember the entire password for signing back in.

Digital products often don’t know the difference between a mistyped password and a forgotten password, so they just tell users that their password is wrong. An error message that merely says that the password is incorrect misleads users into thinking they forgot the password. At this point, most users will abandon.

Bring users up to speed, with the right amount of information

Similarly, even if your app doesn’t make users register, it still may leave them confused when they first open it. The app might not give users what they need. Or it might not make it possible to show them where to find it. Or the benefit of your app versus a competing (or built-in) app might not be clear. Or your app might give users a first screen that is really only for advanced users – or screens that treat them like they’ve never seen a computer before. It may need a tutorial and not have it – or have a tutorial that is irrelevant or too long for users to remember anything.

If users are confused about anything, their chance of abandoning keeps going up. As Alan Cooper, Robert Reimann, and David Cronin wrote in About Face 3, users do not want to remain beginners very long, and our designs should cater to the vast majority of users in a product’s target audience: the perpetual intermediates.

The third hurdle: regular use

Your app probably won’t be in heavy rotation on a user’s phone unless it truly provides value that they can’t get anywhere else. According to recent research, 55% of smartphone users used less than 5 apps per day on their phone.

For example, many park map apps are in the clear here for guests that prefer using their phone to carrying around a paper map. But they won’t be accessed if guests leave their phones in a locker or in their car – or if your guests ignore your pleas and lose their phones on roller coaster with them.

For users who wouldn’t otherwise open your app again to routinely use the app, the app has to give them another benefit that they will definitely use. This could tie in to other touchpoints of your park’s service. For example, users of your app could have a rewards system that gives them their choice of several discounts on items in the park in exchange for using a check-in service to tell their friends that they are at the park, or sharing a photo of themselves at the park for the park to use on social media.

When to opt for a mobile app over a mobile site

When your users need integration with other features in their phones

Some features of a smartphone cannot be accessed by mobile websites.  For example, mobile websites cannot access a phone’s camera.  Support for website access to push notifications is increasing but still limited.  iOS 8 allows websites to have access to a user’s location, which Apple has been allowing since at least iOS 6.

Most apps at least allow users to access them while they are intentionally offline or unable to access Wi-Fi or mobile data.  Offline First, a new initiative which follows Mobile First design strategies, aims to design and develop apps which can be used offline.  In contrast, mobile websites are only accessible while users are connected to a wireless network or able to receive mobile data.

When many of your users would benefit from time-sensitive information

The 2014 IAAPA Attractions Expo, which I attended several weeks ago, set a record with over 30,500 amusement industry professionals in attendance.  The official IAAPA Expos app  allowed users to have quick access to a wealth of information about the trade show: exhibitor profiles with links to each exhibitor’s website, maps of the trade show floor, a list of all education sessions, press releases that came out during the event, and push notifications reminding them of upcoming events.  IAAPA has had mobile apps for their Attractions Expos every year since at least 2010.

While there were some changes I would have made to the app, I did find the app’s content quite relevant.  I used it every day on the floor to find new exhibitors to visit, and it cut down on the time that I spent searching.

There’s ROI in developing an app for a large event like this because attendees commit hundreds of dollars, minimum, to attend the Expo, and there were over 30,000 attendees.  Over 19,000 were registered as buyers, and anything that would help make buyers more productive with their time helps maximize the chances that everyone will get what they need from the show and that the exhibitors will find it worthwhile to return next year.

Furthermore, the IAAPA Expos app helps users be aware of IAAPA’s other trade shows.  With the same app, users can learn more about who was at the most recent Euro Attractions Show and Asian Attractions Expo.

When your app’s purpose matches why users use apps

According to a recent New York Daily News article, mobile users now spend 88% of their time on their devices in apps, compared to 12% of their time on mobile websites.  The article says that 60% of all media that users consume is now via mobile: 52% from apps and 8% from websites.

A recent Harvard Business Review article describes how average users use their time on their phones.  46% is devoted to relaxation or entertainment.  19% is for interacting with other people, while 12% is shopping and 11% is for managing finances, health, and productivity.  Preparing for upcoming activities, reading the news, and self-expression each account for less than 10% of mobile users’ time.

Web apps: a hybrid solution

Part of the problem for organizations which want apps is the overhead associated with app stores.  App stores have to approve apps before they will make them available for download, a process that can take weeks.  Apple maintains a lengthy list of reasons why apps may be rejected.  These include the following:

  • Apps that don’t work
  • Apps that “do not provide any lasting entertainment”
  • Apps that are only for marketing or advertising
  • Apps that use notifications to send advertising
  • Apps that require personal information from users (including their email address or birthday) in order to function
  • Apps that don’t comply with Apple’s Human Interface Guidelines

Web apps do not have to go through an approval process.  Also, Apple takes 30% of all revenue generated by an app.  A web app can keep all of its revenue, but it can’t be listed on the App Store.

Test, test, test

Therefore, taking the app route successfully requires testing with users at every possible point where they may drop out of the process: the landing page which tells them about the app (which needs to be mobile-friendly, or users won’t stay on it), the listing in the app store, the initial screens of the app, routine use, and any sort of checkout process within the app. And the app has to be designed and built with a solid understanding of users’ goals, the tasks that they want to perform in accomplishing those goals, and their frustrations.

Successful apps like Facebook, Twitter, Evernote, and just about every successful mobile game that you can name have done well because they understood what users needed, delivered on it, and kept on testing with users.

If you don’t go the app route, your site will still need to do an effective job delivering on users’ actual needs. I still recommend frequent testing with your users in either case, but at least an effectively-designed mobile site will have several hurdles eliminated: getting people to download the app and convincing them to use it. Then you just have to deal with the engagement and conversion problems that desktop sites also need to tackle.

I agree with Econsultancy’s conclusion based on Deloitte and Comscore’s recent research: the percentage of web traffic coming from mobile devices is now far too big to ignore, and it is getting bigger.  So when developing a native app is needed, it becomes a “both-and”; you would need both a responsive website to cater to mobile traffic and a native app to draw upon capabilities of the phone.

Even if 88% of smartphone time is currently spent in apps, the website provides a very important “shop window” (Econsultancy article’s term) for helping prospective customers to perceive your brand.  But for most businesses catering to other businesses in the amusement industry, a responsive website by itself will do the job.

Let’s talk about mobile strategy

Part of design thinking involves making sure that a digital product you are considering creating is the right solution for your business.  In a brief, free consultation or a more extended discovery phase, I can help you determine whether a responsive website, a web app, or a native mobile app would be an effective solution for your business.

Use this contact form or send me an email to start discussing some ideas.  You should also follow @DavidParmeleeUX and @ThrillAndCreate on Twitter for more useful articles about how to improve your product’s user experience.

Screenshot showing the redesigned live About page for The Coaster Crew. This section of the page explains the different tiers of membership, which build on each other to include more benefits for individuals, families, and Platinum members.

UX Process in Action: Consistently pushing myself toward a better design

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Describing the new Coaster Crew website, which launched in September, has been a long story.  I began this project by learning more about the site’s target audience and developing personas, including the primary persona for CoasterCrew.net: Javier, a male in his mid-20s who typically visits parks in the Southeast US once or twice a year and loves big roller coasters and drop towers.  The ideas and design process for each page of the site have been centered on showing people like Javier, who typically aren’t familiar with coaster clubs or coaster enthusiast terminology, two things:

  1. Why should I be in a coaster club?
  2. What can I do in a coaster club – specifically, in The Coaster Crew?

In later articles, I described my design process for several of the pages on the site: the new homepage, the new In the Loop page, the events list, and a page inviting users to participate in the Coaster Crew Network Forums.  Most recently, I explained the Coaster Crew Network bar, which appears in the footer of each page of CoasterCrew.net and (in the future) the fansites to allow users to navigate around the network more easily and be more aware of all of the sites the organization offers.

I skipped over the About page intentionally.  Because it is a complex page with multiple sections and many iterations in its design, I wanted to describe it last.

Read on to see how several sections within About the Coaster Crew came to life.

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The original sketch envisioned an infographic with a playful design below an attention-getting mission statement in a blockquote.  The infographic was going to tell the Coaster Crew’s story of how they increased from 4 members to more than 1000 in less than 15 years.  The copy for the infographic was already on the old Coaster Crew site’s About page, but it had not been styled to get users’ attention more.

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The original mission statement in my redesign looked like a block quote printed for a poster.  Here is the original wireframe.  At this point, no decisions had been made about the background image.

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The second iteration of the prototype included the fonts and the first background image.  I decided to use Intimidator 305 for this picture because it has been the centerpiece of several of Coaster Crew’s biggest events since its opening in 2010.

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After two rounds of usability testing and feedback from the Coaster Crew staff, I used a more traditional row layout and dropped the novelty fonts. The text was easier to read after adding shadows behind it in development, but user testers still found it too hard to read.

The new background picture, also of Intimidator 305, was taken by a member of the KDFansite staff and donated for this site.

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To enhance readability and make the mission statement pop more, I put a full-width yellow panel behind the mission statement text.  I also switched the fonts to different-weight fonts in the same typeface to keep a common theme with the fansites’ design, which are currently using different weights of Open Sans.  The About Us header was added for consistency with other pages of the site after we switched the layout back to multi-page.

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On mobile, the mission statement displays as one long, single column.  The emphases on different phrases within the mission statement becomes more obvious.

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Here is the original layout for the infographic, which was focused on the pictures.

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Here is the first round of the infographic with pictures.  I was unhappy with the broadcast icon used here because its background was still visible.  Several of the graphics were full-width and did not scale well for mobile, so I changed them after receiving this feedback in testing.

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The layout changed slightly after I migrated it to Zurb Foundation 4.3’s responsive grid system in development.

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Throughout this project, I challenged myself at several junctures to find the part of the design that I liked the least and improve it.  The About page, especially its infographic, easily stood out the most.

I decided to edit every image I had used in the infographic.  I switched to a four-column layout with the last two columns empty to show a train for Great Bear going by.  The focus moved more toward the number of members an events and away from the less important number of states where we have offices.  That is because users are more interested in an organization’s benefit to them (and the organization’s proving it) than in an organization’s structure.  The infographic would lead to a call to action for people to join The Coaster Crew and attend events.

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Here is the call to action to join Coaster Crew at the bottom of the infographic.

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The infographic displays like this on a mobile device.

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The mobile layout’s single column keeps viewers more focused on the statistics that the infographic is presenting.  The state icons display in three columns to save space and keep viewers’ attention on the statistics.

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The original layout took on a zigzag pattern and provided space for other content such as images in the empty parts of the page.

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Testers had trouble trying to find the part of the site which talked about membership benefits.  Changing the more creative but less obvious “You may ride again.” header to “Why join?” was the first move toward rectifying this.

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I redesigned the rest of the About page, including the Rules section, after the second round of usability testing.  After the icons in the Events section received very positive feedback in testing for being able to attract users’ attention, icons were added in the Forums and Membership Benefits sections.  I added the prices in the left column based on tester feedback.

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Some usability practitioners speculate that on mobile devices, the first page has replaced “above the fold” with regard to page content.  Mobile users are more likely to scroll up and down pages than to tap links to other pages.  So I added a quick blurb of copy about the events to the Membership Benefits header.

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Per a tester’s recommendation, I added dividers to distinguish between the levels of memberships.

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The Coaster Crew Network row moved below the Membership Benefits in the final layout.  Users were generally more able to comprehend the membership benefits and network when each was presented across one full row.  They are more able to think of this as one unit rather than having their eyes bounce back and forth between columns with unrelated information.

You can see the About page live on the Coaster Crew site.  You may also view my design stories for the other pages on this site here: Intro, Personas, Homepage, In the Loop Podcast, Events, Forums, Signup, and Coaster Crew Network Bar.

I am a user experience designer specializing in the amusement industry. I work for amusement parks, ride companies, coaster clubs, and any other company or organization affiliated with amusement. If you would like to hire me, please contact me through my website or tweet at @AmusementUX. You can also like my company’s Facebook page or follow me on Twitter.

In their redesign, the Coaster Crew's fansites have a new Network Bar at the bottom of every page for easier navigation to the other fansites. The Network Bar uses the fansites' individual color schemes. An example of the network bar for one fansite is shown here.

UX Process in Action: Navigating a network of 10 sites and counting

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Ever since the new Coaster Crew website launched in September, I have been writing articles describing my design process and design decisions.  The series began with a post about how I learned about both the roller coaster enthusiasts and the “general public” segment of The Coaster Crew’s audience and determined how to best target the site toward the general public while still meeting enthusiasts’ needs.  Later posts outlined how several of the pages on the site came to be: the new homepage, the new In the Loop page, the events list, and a page inviting users to participate in the Coaster Crew Network Forums.  I also went over a new membership signup flow which is not currently on the live site due to technical limitations.

Today, I’ll discuss how the Coaster Crew Network ties together with a feature that you can see now on CoasterCrew.net.

The Coaster Crew currently owns and operates ten live websites.  Their official site has been live in various incarnations and web addresses since 2004.  They started operating fansites for amusement parks several years ago when the Kings Dominion Fan Site went under their ownership.  (Prior to this, several Kings Dominion fansites had come and gone over the years.  Usually, these sites had one or two owners and would be maintained well for several years before the owners no longer had time or no longer had interest in working on the sites.)

They later launched fansites for Busch Gardens Williamsburg and Six Flags America.  Most recently, they have added fansites for Cedar Point, Kings Island, Canada’s Wonderland, Dollywood, and Valleyfair.  The Coaster Crew Network site originally just served as a gateway to their forums.  Earlier this year, I launched a complete, responsive redesign of that site with a focus on tying together all of their fansites and social media channels and providing a consistent look and feel with the other sites I have been redesigning for them.

Selling users on the idea of the fansites as being part of a network is important for the Coaster Crew.  The fansites have not always had a consistent way to navigate between them, and it can be hard to remember which fansites are in the network.  The staff suggested a network bar in the sites’ header or footer.  I decided that since tall footers with site maps are common in designs today, I could merge the network bar into a tall footer.

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I sketched five different ideas for the network bar at the beginning of the project.  The first was a simple listing of all of the fansites across one row.  The second divided the list of sites into four columns.  The third put the names of the parks with the fansites.  The fourth arranged the sites in columns by the park chains represented by each fansite.

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The layout that seemed to scale best arranged the parks by geographic region.  It seemed to be the best at handling new sites’ being added to the network bar.  If park chains sold a park, we would not need to update the network bar and users would not be wondering if we still had a fansite for that park.

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I tested each idea’s strength by creating wireframes for them.  The first three ideas seemed to work for a header or a footer, while the last two were definitely for footers.  In addition to scalability, the fifth idea also seemed the best for the design since a tall footer on each page would allow for some strong design ideas there.  I continued to work on that idea through the prototype and later stages.

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In Axure, I initially added bright colors for the network bar before I knew what the background pictures would be.  The copyright and footer links were initially very minimal at the bottom of the page.

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I took this background picture of El Toro with a point-and-shoot camera. It has remained the desktop background on my old desktop computer for several years. This picture seemed to go very well with the network bar, so it became the background.

I built the network bar locally using Zurb Foundation 4.3.  The fansite’s logos fill 100% of their container’s width with auto height.  The copyright and map statements were minimal.  User testers seemed to receive this layout well, but I thought more could be done with it.  It also didn’t have the ribbon yet.

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For performance reasons, the live site on mobile doesn’t keep the background in one place.  It shows the fansites two to a row instead of four to a row to size the logos ideally for the smaller screen.

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The footer now features a panel with the Coaster Crew’s mission statement.

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The network bar currently takes almost exactly one screenful for a tablet in landscape orientation.

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In portrait mode, most of the blue footer panel can also be seen.  Zurb Foundation 4.3 automatically hyphenates words on mobile devices to keep the parks’ names from becoming too wide for their columns.

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The desktop layout shows the blue footer panel mostly obscuring the roller coaster hill behind it.  It gives clear access to The Coaster Crew’s social media channels under the club’s logo in the footer.

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Lastly, here is a preview of how the network bar will look on the redesigned fansites.  I did this as an overlay, similar to the In the Loop background, because each fansite has a different color scheme and that will allow each fansite’s personality to translate into its network bar design.  This is a prototype and still subject to change as the sites move toward going live.

You can see the Coaster Crew network bar live on any page of the Coaster Crew site.  The next and last article in this series will discuss the About page: the best example in this project of my consistently pushing myself toward a better design.

I am a user experience designer specializing in the amusement industry. I work for amusement parks, ride companies, coaster clubs, and any other company or organization affiliated with amusement. If you would like to hire me, please contact me through my website or tweet at @AmusementUX. You can also like my company’s Facebook page or follow me on Twitter.

Screenshot of a page explaining why users should join The Coaster Crew's forums. This screenshot for this responsive website shows how the site adapts on an iPad 2.

UX shows 8 reasons why you should join this roller coaster forum

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I have recently been explaining the design decisions for the new Coaster Crew website, which launched in September.  During this series, I have demonstrated how I came to understand our target audience and have illustrated my design process for the homepage (this site went from a multi-page layout to a one-page layout and back!), the new In the Loop homepage, and the Coaster Crew events list.

Today, I’ll look at a page which received some very interesting feedback from users: the Forums page.

As a freelance user experience (UX) designer, I wear a lot of hats for my one-person business.  Part of this means I maintain accounts on a lot of websites: social media sites, sites for freelancers, software vendors, and many more.  Before I started using a password manager, I was forgetting a lot of passwords.  When I evaluate a website or app, one of my first gripes tends to be this: they assume I will create an account without telling me why I should.  The worst offenders make me sign in before I even see what their site is!

Yet, this is almost exactly what I was doing with an early design for the Coaster Crew forums page.  I was giving a quick description of what the forums were and leaving them hanging.  When they tested one of my old one-page layouts, some users told me that this section “doesn’t look important, so I skipped over it.”

That’s one of the big reasons why every park, every ride company, every coaster club, and every other amusement-related organization with a website needs to have their target users test their site.

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Here is my initial wireframe for the Forums section.  Part of a one-page layout, users would have seen this after the Events section.  The content seemed to stand out well enough at this stage of development.  But as other sections of the page evolved throughout my design process, this section got lost.  And that was a problem because The Coaster Crew is trying to increase their forum activity.

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The original prototype gave the Forums section a similar white-on-orange color scheme to the Podcast section.  This provided good consistency through the one-page layout.  I was planning to add a background picture but had not yet decided which ride it should be.

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I decided on Dominator at Kings Dominion for the background picture. Several years ago, the KDFansite forum merged with the Coaster Crew Network forums, where it became a board within the larger network’s forums. It’s still the most active part of the forums. The most active topic was the Intimidator 305 announcement, but I decided to use an I305 picture as the background for the mission statement. More users would see that in the one-page layout because that was almost prime real estate in that layout.

The background picture in this mockup was just a placeholder. I had taken it on the way out of Kings Dominion several years before I bought a professional camera, and it was an old Facebook upload. It did the job for a prototype even though I needed to make the picture bigger, but I wouldn’t use a background picture like this in a live site. Our first round of user testers saw the prototype with this background image.

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By now, I had a much better picture of Dominator thanks to Nikki at KDFansite.  I darkened the picture slightly to make the section’s text easier to read.  I also decided to put the calls to action on their own row instead of in front of the picture.  Users did their second round of testing on this beta site.

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Here’s the forums section at this stage in mobile width.

One of my questions for user testers in the first two rounds was, “Do we present good enough reasons to join the forums?” One positive thing they mentioned was actually the Register call to action. They didn’t want to see spam on the boards. But users also didn’t find the Forums section that eye-catching in this layout. By this stage, I had added icons in several other sections of the site. They found those sections drew their attention more.

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Going to the next round of user testing to the third was a big leap. I added a panel for readability and icons to draw users’ eyes.

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Some users in the last round of testing remarked that I had drawn attention to the wrong features of the forums.  The number of members and number of posts sounded more intimidating and tedious than helpful when it was placed in the top row.  I ended up moving those down and putting the visit tips and trip reports at the top on the live site.

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The site looks very similar on a tablet.

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Here is the row of calls to action on a tablet.

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At mobile width, the page draws users’ attention toward viewing the forums before registering.  This width is the best for this flow of events.  Users now expect to be given concrete value before they register for a site.

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When I was directed to split the site back into a multi-page layout, this created a new challenge because each section needed to be represented well on the homepage.  I opted for a shorter section of copy and just a few of the forums’ features to make it onto the homepage.

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In the live site, the social media section appears right below the forums section to enhance the feeling of being part of a community of coaster fans.  Further up the page, users are given a list of events for real-life meetups.  The forums and social media sections encourage discussions at any time of the year, regardless of whether or not parks are open.  Actually, in my experience as a Coaster Crew forum moderator, forums get quite a lot of activity in the offseason too because members take the offseason to speculate on what will happen at the parks in the following season.

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In the mobile width, I hide the icons on the homepage and try to just communicate the right things with the text. I didn’t want to go too far off of the desktop width for this because the mobile site and desktop site are the same site. The design both adapts to users’ devices and responds to their window size.

Thanks for reading about Coaster Crew’s new forums page. You can see it live here. The next article will detail a new signup flow I designed for the Coaster Crew site, which could not be delivered yet due to technical limitations. I’ll close the series with posts about the new Coaster Crew Network bar and the About page.

I am a user experience designer specializing in the amusement industry. I work for amusement parks, ride companies, coaster clubs, and any other company or organization affiliated with amusement. If you would like to hire me, please contact me through my website or tweet at @AmusementUX. You can also like my company’s Facebook page or follow me on Twitter.

Screenshot of the Coaster Crew's new Events page. The page begins by listing the perks that guests can expect, such as exclusive ride time and behind-the-scenes tours.

UX Process in Action: Evolution of a coaster club’s events list in 17 screenshots

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The new Coaster Crew site went live recently. I designed it, and in a series of articles I have been explaining how. First, I explained some of the design considerations for refocusing a coaster club’s site toward the general public and not only toward coaster enthusiasts. Then, I showed how the new Coaster Crew site moved from a multi-page layout to a single-page layout and back. Most recently, I walked through the new In the Loop homepage – from sketches to wireframes to prototypes to a live site on several different devices.

Today, let’s look at how the design for the Events page changed over time. It’s one of the more visually striking pages on the live CoasterCrew.net site now, but the design today is a radical departure from how it looked earlier in this project.

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As with the other pages, I began by sketching some ideas that I had selected earlier.  This first idea called a lot of attention to the very next event in hopes that 1) people wanting to go to multiple events would be able to keep track of what is next and 2) Coaster Crew might get more signups to events that they need to fill up soon.  This is the idea which got selected early on and lasted well into usability testing.

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The final design turned out more like this idea.  This idea highlighted the next three events, which are usually all at different parks around North America.  Site visitors could easily see which events would be closest to them.  The top row of 3 was the idea that persisted and became part of the live site’s homepage.  In reality, we went with a hybrid of these two original sketches.

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In the first wireframe, I used the original idea of highlighting the next event on the left.  ”Join us at our next event!” would have been the page title.

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The page would continue with more future events, “save the date” notices, and a way to sign up for The Coaster Crew newsletter to find out about more events.

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With no background image, the first prototype looked like a Windows 8 style flat design.  That’s not what we were trying for here.  I also later decided after a round of usability testing that less was more regarding the fancy typography.  Rather than using multiple fancy typefaces, I opted for multiple weights of one typeface with other fancier display fonts used sparingly.  This design strategy will be used on the fansites too.

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I liked how the newsletter call to action turned out in this layout.  I never liked this transition between the events list and the forums.  In later iterations, I used background pictures more liberally to help the flow between the sections.

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This background image overlay came from BGWFansite‘s special hard hat tour of Verbolten.  My intention here was to show an example of one of the perks that Coaster Crew members get at events.  I edited the background image the way I did to have consistency with the previous section (Podcast).

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The events section received a lot of requests for changes during the second round of usability testing.  Testers didn’t like how the section was very long.  Scalability would have been a problem when the staff adds the Coaster Crew events for 2014 to the page.  Coaster Crew already has a lot of events on their schedule for next year.  Testers also wanted to know what they could expect at events, and they thought the existing page wasn’t doing this well enough.

After The Coaster Crew’s Big Bang event at Kings Island with exclusive ride time (ERT) on The Beast, they posted new pictures to their Facebook page from the event.  Using an ERT picture in the background for the Events section gives the page a much more human feel and helps visitors to the site connect with the organization more.  Testers could tell that this was a picture from a real Coaster Crew event and were much more interested in the content because of it.

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I kept the page’s attention on the next event, having it fill the whole top row.  The future events list switched to a 3-to-a-row layout as in the second sketched idea.  The second idea also had future events 4-to-a-row after the first row, but I decided against this because it would not give enough room to display the event info on tablets.

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I added this What to Expect section after the list of events.  It used similar icons to the rest of the site.  Testers eventually wanted this further up the page because it was below the fold and they thought people new to Coaster Crew wouldn’t see it soon enough to notice it.  In the live site, I tightened these icons to one row and moved it above all of the listed events.

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Here is the live site on desktop.  When the 2014 events are populated, they will fill in three to a row, left to right.

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The activities list shows up for all devices because users who are unfamiliar with our events may be using any device.  For performance reasons, and because iOS doesn’t currently support fixed-position backgrounds, I stacked several images from Coaster Crew’s Big Bang event at Kings Island and made that one background image.  The top image is a sign Kings Island had for their event group.  The bottom image, shown if you scroll down on a tablet, is from a behind-the-scenes tour of The Beast.

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The stack of images shows up more obviously in portrait mode.  You won’t see The Beast’s logo after the 2014 events are populated here.  This section has the live event data that is currently in the system.

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Mobile users see what exclusive ride time is front and center before they are told about events that have it.

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After users see what they can experience at Coaster Crew events, they are invited to the next event.  More events are listed further down the page.

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The fall colors for the More Future Events list really stand out on mobile.  Calls to action take users to places where they can get more information about the event or register.  Some registrations are handled through the Coaster Crew site, while parks’ sites take care of others.

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The way to see pictures from past events shows up more clearly on phones. It allows users to go to the Coaster Crew Facebook page, fansites, or forums for more information.

I hope you’ve enjoyed seeing how Coaster Crew’s new events list came to be. The next article is already ready to launch soon, and it will walk you through how the Forums page got built. It shows how I responded to users’ feedback to grab their attention with the design of the page and tell them why they should register for the forums.

I am a user experience designer specializing in the amusement industry. I work for amusement parks, ride companies, coaster clubs, and any other company or organization affiliated with amusement. If you would like to hire me, please contact me through my website or tweet at @AmusementUX. You can also like my company’s Facebook page or follow me on Twitter.

Live screenshot from the Coaster Crew's homepage

In 15 Pictures: The new Coaster Crew site goes live

The new site for The Coaster Crew has now gone live. Seven months in the making, this is my second site for Coaster Crew, after their new Coaster Crew Network Portal was launched in June. Like the Portal, the new Coaster Crew site uses a responsive design. This means that it is designed to look good on desktop computers, laptops, tablets, and smartphones.

The Coaster Crew is a roller coaster club with over 1000 members in the US and Canada. I’ve attended several of their events in the past and really enjoyed interacting with other roller coaster enthusiasts, riding coasters in Exclusive Ride Time, and going on behind the scenes tours! I hope my schedule will allow me to attend their events again soon.

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One of the most interesting challenges of this site was helping Coaster Crew expand their audience of coaster enthusiasts to reach more of the general public. General public guests who enjoy riding roller coasters often don’t know about coaster clubs and tend to visit parks less often than enthusiasts do. However, there is not as much disparity between enthusiasts and GP in terms of which rides they tend to like, save for “hidden gem” rides at lesser-known parks that tend to receive much of their attention among only enthusiasts and small parks’ regional audiences.

Over the coming weeks, I will continue to work on redesigns for the Coaster Crew fansites. The fansites have a more direct benefit for the general public, who should find several new sections for the fansites helpful.

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I began this project by researching the current and prospective users of the Coaster Crew sites.  This is a common strategy for people in my profession, user experience design.  I’ve written a whole article on how I did the user research for these sites.  It will be the next article to go live in this series.

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Next, I sketched out every page of the new site.  Many ideas in this original sketch for the In the Loop section were included in what is now the live site.

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After that, I created wireframes for each page.  This was an early idea for what is now the header on the homepage.

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Then, I created the prototype for the site in three iterations.  This is the second round of the prototype for the In the Loop page, as depicted in Axure.

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After a second round of user testing on a beta site, I created a final prototype.  This Forums section is from that prototype.

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A third round of user testing on the beta site gave me some great feedback, like moving a section showing people what to expect at a Coaster Crew event to the top of the Events section.

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The BGWFansite and KDFansite staff and I donated some pretty striking pictures of coasters to use on the site.  The mission statement appears over a picture of Intimidator 305 at Kings Dominion.

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An infographic and call to action for membership highlight the new About section on CoasterCrew.net.  A future article will show more about the design process for this infographic.  I took the background picture at Hersheypark this season.

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This is the first Coaster Crew site designed to be easy to use on mobile phones.  This page allows users to listen to In the Loop on their phones.

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I mixed different font weights throughout the new Coaster Crew site design.  This is the event list at mobile width.

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The new homepage features teasers of each section of the site.  User testers loved how the background for each section stayed in one place as they scrolled it into view.

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A new network bar unites the entire Coaster Crew network.  (It does have a title, Coaster Crew Network, which is not in this screenshot so that I could show the full footer.)

This has been a great project to do. Explore the live site at http://coastercrew.net, and stay tuned for more articles describing how each page was built! The next one will describe how I learned more about the types of people in our current and target audiences.

I am a user experience designer specializing in the amusement industry. I work for amusement parks, ride companies, coaster clubs, and any other company or organization affiliated with amusement. If you would like to hire me, please contact me through my website or tweet at @AmusementUX. You can also like my company’s Facebook page or follow me on Twitter.